By Ronald J. Deibert, John G. Palfrey, Rafal Rohozinski, Jonathan Zittrain
Many nations around the globe block or filter out net content material, denying entry to information—often approximately politics, but additionally on the subject of sexuality, tradition, or religion—that they deem too delicate for traditional electorate. entry Denied files and analyzes net filtering practices in over 3 dozen nations, providing the 1st carefully carried out examine of this accelerating pattern. net filtering occurs in a minimum of 40 states world wide together with many nations in Asia and the center East and North Africa. comparable net content material keep an eye on mechanisms also are in position in Canada, the U.S. and a cluster of nations in Europe. Drawing on a just-completed survey of world web filtering undertaken via the OpenNet Initiative (a collaboration of the Berkman middle for web and Society at Harvard legislation college, the Citizen Lab on the college of Toronto, the Oxford web Institute at Oxford collage, and the collage of Cambridge) and hoping on paintings by way of nearby specialists and an intensive community of researchers, entry Denied examines the political, criminal, social, and cultural contexts of net filtering in those states from quite a few views. Chapters speak about the mechanisms and politics of net filtering, the strengths and obstacles of the expertise that powers it, the relevance of foreign legislation, moral issues for firms that offer states with the instruments for blockading and filtering, and the results of net filtering for activist groups that more and more depend on web applied sciences for speaking their missions. reviews on web content material law in 40 assorted nations persist with, with every one kingdom profile outlining the kinds of content material blocked by means of classification and documenting key findings. Contributors : Ross Anderson, Malcolm Birdling, Ronald Deibert, Robert Faris, Vesselina Haralampieva, Steven Murdoch, Helmi Noman, John Palfrey, Rafal Rohozinski, Mary Rundle, Nart Villeneuve, Stephanie Wang, and Jonathan Zittrain
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Additional resources for Access Denied: The Practice and Policy of Global Internet Filtering
Early in the twenty-first century, the Saudi state was one of the first to grapple publicly with what the introduction of the Internet might mean. Rather than introducing the Internet in its unfettered—and fundamentally Western—form, the Saudi authorities decided to establish a system whereby they could stop their citizens from accessing certain materials produced and published from elsewhere in the world. As an extension of its longstanding traditional media controls, the Saudis set up a technical means of filtering the Internet, buttressed by a series of legal and normative controls.
Citizens with technical knowledge can generally circumvent any filters that a state has put in place. 11 While no state will ultimately win the game of cat-and-mouse with those citizens who are resourceful and dedicated enough to employ circumvention measures, many users will never do so. For some states, like Singapore, the state’s bark is worse than the bite of the filtering system. The widely publicized Singaporean filtering system blocks only a small handful of pornographic sites. The Singapore system is more about sending a message, one that underscores the substantial local self-censorship that takes place there, than it is about blocking citizens from accessing or publishing anything specific.
In other words, no state has been able to consistently block access to a range of sites meeting specified criteria. S. firm, Secure Computing, that also assists schools in keeping children away from such Web sites. China has the most consistent record of responding to the shifting content of the Web, likely reflecting a devotion of the most resources to the filtering enterprise. Our research shows changes among sites blocked over time in some states, such as Iran, Saudi Arabia, and China. As we repeat this global survey in future years, we expect to be able to describe changes over time with greater certainty.