By Alexander S. Raikhel (auth.), Kerry F. Harris (eds.)
Volume nine during this sequence includes 4 chapters on vectors that have an effect on human or animal well-being and 6 chapters on plant pathogens and their vectors. In bankruptcy 1, Alex S. Raikhel discusses vitellogenesis in mosquitoes: the cornerstone of the reproductive cycle related to mammoth creation of yolk precursors through the fats physique and their accumulation in constructing oocytes. In anautogeneous mosquitoes, vitellogenesis relies at the availability of a blood meal and, for that reason, is associated with transmission of pathogens. hence, elucidation of mechanisms governing the mosquito vitellogenesis is important for the winning improvement of novel thoughts in vector and sickness administration. earlier reports on mosquito vitellogenesis have dealt predominantly with hormonal keep an eye on. The aim of this evaluation, even if, is to summarize major development which has been accomplished in figuring out mosquito vitellogenesis on the mobile, biochemical and molecular degrees. it really is with those disciplines that we predict to totally comprehend the mechanisms governing this key technique in mosquito reproduction.
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VITELLOGENIN GENES In the mosquito, A. aegypti a multigene family consisting of five Vg genes was identified (53,68). Four of these genes are believed to be actively transcribed (68). Restriction enzyme mapping demonstrated that two of the four genes (AI and A2) have very similar restriction sites, and the other two have no sites in common with the first two genes. 5 kb mRNA present only in the fat body of vitellogenic females (68). Vitellogenin genes from Anopheles gambiae, a major vector of falciparum malaria in sub-Saharan Africa, have been also cloned (137, Romans and Miller, unpublished).
Fat body and Malpighian tubules, accumulate both Vg and IgG at equally low levels (81). The endocytosis of Vg by oocytes in vitro has also been characterized for several other insect species (reviewed in 125). LM for the mosquito A. aegypti. The low Vg concentration saturating uptake by the mosquito oocyte indicates that the oocyte has receptors capable of a greater rate of turnover (recycling to the oocyte surface) than in the other insects. A higher rate of receptor turnover could be one of the adaptations essential for intense Vg accumulation characteristic of the very rapid development of the mosquito oocyte.
In anautogeneous mosquitoes, A. aegypti, the levels of ecdysteroids are reportedly low during the first 8-10 hr after a blood meal with only a small peak at 4 hrs. 1A). Although, these ecdysteroid levels were first determined in whole body preparations (66), they were later confirmed using hemolymph samples (60). During the first gonadotropic cycle of the autogeneous mosquito, A. atropalpus, the levels of ecdysteroids increase two-fold to 323 pg/female by 30 hrs after eclosion, which corresponds to the peak of Vg production (9, 100).