By Ki Young Kim
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Extra resources for Advances in Optical and Photonic Devices
Schematic description of single slot laser diode. t2 42 Advances in Optical and Photonic Devices In fig. 2, ni refers to the effective refractive index in these section of the laser structure, while ri refers to the reflection from the interfaces as shown above. Each section can be described as a separated cavity and the total reflection and transmission is then found. The back section amplitude reflection from the left side and right side is described from the SMM as rbl = r1 + ( t1r2 ( −t1 ) exp −2iβb Lb ( ) 1 − r2 ( − r1 ) exp −2iβb Lb (1) ) and rbr = −r2 + ( t2 ( −r1 )( −t2 ) exp −2iβb Lb ( 1 − r2 ( −r1 ) exp −2iβb Lb ) ) (2) respectively where β is the complex propagation constant ( β = βre + iβim) and Lb is the back section cavity length.
Distributed-Bragg-reflector (DBR) lasers and distributed feedback (DFB) lasers which employ a series of small refractive-index perturbations to provide feedback, do not rely on cleaved facets and therefore can be integrated with optical amplifiers and modulators. However, complex processing with multiple epitaxial growth stages is required for fabricating these lasers. Another method to obtain feedback is to etch a facet. However, this approach is limited by difficulties in achieving the smoothness and verticality of the etched facet particularly for structures based on InP materials.
2005; Welch, Kish et al. 2006; Raring & Coldren 2007) in order to reduce chip cost, system size and complexity. Tunable lasers are also needed in other important markets such as trace gas detection for environmental emission motoring (Phelan, Lynch et al. 2005). Laser operation requires optical feedback which is conventionally obtained in a semiconductor Fabry-Pérot laser by cleaving the ends of the laser waveguide along either (011) or (01-1) crystallographic planes to form two semi-reflecting facets.